ANNUAL REPORTS FOjR YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL MM NATION.^ * v.-" / FOR munsrofs otxokm. n.& 19J0 1931 1933 1931 1995 19# 1397 9ia 7/7, 27f Vo/. //* YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK LiBMRY . M "V X If t:f,Li T 'vil; : ! " iii/tNiiATsiUiiM^VfArfiW During the years 1927 and 1928, due to shortage of funds, also in 1931 and 1932, it was not possible to include the reports of the var- ious superintendents in the annual report of the Director of the Nation- al Park Service and the reports were mimeographed. Again in 1933 shortage of funds makes mimeographing nec- essary. Fifty copies of the Yellowstone annual report have been made for distribution to collectors who have the Yellow- stone reports since the first issue and to others who are in- terested in having copies for reference purposes. The illustrations are the work of Park Ranger Gerald P. Yetter . Roger W. Toll Superintendent \yME\ \ < Wil ";■ .'•:'" .//' 1 • '((('irMlllu Accidents 6 Administration 7 Albright (Resignation) 5 Animals 3 ,15, 16 Appropriations 7 Art Exhibits . -. 5 Auto Treks, Lectures, &. Guided Trips , 11 Bathhouse (Hamilton) 3, 23 Bears, Black : ■. : 16 Bears, Grizzly ..... ; 16 Beer, (Sale of in Park) i ........ . 6 Boat Co., Yellowstone Park i . ; . 23 Buffalo Ranch Activities . 14 Building Maintenance & Construction ... i ...... . 20 Bureau of Public Roads . 24 Cammerer (Appointment) ..... 5 Camps Co., Yellowstone Park Lodge and 23 Census of Wild Life 15 Civil Service i 2 Contracts (B.P.R.) * 6 Cooperating Bureaus 23 P. R 24 B. Post Office . Weather Bureau 23 24 Deaths 25 Electrical & Telephone Department 20 Emergency Conservation w ork . . •, 21 Engineering Department 18 Exhibit, Art ...... 5 Extension, Park . . . . . 4 Federal Employees' Union ... *.«*<•«. 4 Fire Protection . . . . 13 Fish Planting **.••• 16 Forestry 13 Franchises and Permits ............. 7 Fuel Co., Yellowstone Park 23 Garage, Y. P. T. Go. at Gardiner 3 General 1 Geographic Board 5 Geysers and Hot Springs 11 Guided Trips, Lectures and Auto Treks 11 Hamilton, C. A 23 Haynes Picture Shops, Ij-c 23 Hay Ranches 14 Highways (Improvement of) 3 Hotel Co., Yellowstone Park 22 Hotels and Lodges, closing of 3 Hot Springs and Geysers " 11 Jackson Hole Hearings 4 Labor Situation 2 Lectures, Guided Trips and Auto Treks 11 Library 10 Library and Museum Assoc, Yellowstone 10 Lodge and Camps Co. Yellowstone Park 23 Lodges and Hotels, closing of 3 Lower Geyser Basin 12 Mammoth Hot Springs 11 Mechanical Department 21 Miscellaneous 25 Museums (Naturalist Dept.) 10 Naturalist Department . 10 Nature Notes 11 Norris Geyser Basin 12 Operators, Park ..... 22 Perk Extension 4 Permits and Franchises 7 Personnel (Administration) 7 " (Protection) 12 Place Names 5 Post Office 23 Predatory Animals 15 Protection Department 12 Pryor and Trischman 23 Public Health Service, U. S. (Sanitation) 19 Public Works Projects 6 Religious Services 27 Revenues 7 J j ••' ■'■■'■- I- . IV '■-•». • •, Salary Reduction . Sanitation Department * Senate Subcommittee Small Animals Snow Plow * . ♦ Summer Activities (Educational Dept.) . . * . ! ' " (Protection Dept.) . . . , 2 19 4 16 5 11 12 Telephone and Electrical , Trail Const., Maint., & Improvement ........ . . 20 . . 14 Transportation Co., Yellowstone park 3, 23 Travel 2, 8 Upper Geyser Basin U. S. Public Health Service (Sanitation) 12 19 Visitors ... "Vital Statistics 27 25 Waterfowl Weather Bureau West Thumb Basin Wild Life in Park Winter Activities (Protection Dept.) 16 24 12 15 12 Yellowstone Library & Museum Assoc Yellowstone Park Boat Co Yellowstone Park Fuel Co Yellowstone Park Hotel Co, Yellowstone Park Lodge & Camps Co, Yellowstone Park Transportation Co, ' ANNUAL REPORT FOR YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK 1933 Roger /V. Toll, Superintendent GENERAL Almost simultaneously with the opening of the Century of Prog- ress Exposition In 'Jbloago, Yellowstone National Park opened its gates for its sixty-f i'jst season, On May 27, the date of the opening of the fair-, the north and west gates began admitting motorists and most of the locp rooc 1 wa3 cpen to travel at that time. Construction work on the Golden Gate tunnel prevented an earlier opening. Motor- ists were admitted via th? east gate on June 5 and while the south gate was opened on Jun3 12, . it was closed in a day or so due to its unsatisfactory condition and was not made passable again until June 21, The park was ideal from the standpoint of the 1933 visitor; wild flowers were abundant and the park presented a green and fresh appear- ance early in the summer, though the continued dry weather brought on the fall ripening earlier than usual. Never were conditions more suitable for photographing and, while there were hot days, the nights were always cool end the campers found "camping out" very enjoyable. Followers of Izaak Walton, from the very opening of the season, reported excellent catches and throughout the summer fishermen were well rewarded for their efforts at whipping the streams and lakes. Two ne"i fishing trips, to Stevenson Island and Shoshone Lake, inaugurated by the operating compenies, proved very popular and will no doubt be continued and increased in the future. While the park operators experienced extremely poor business during 1932, despite an increase in park travel this year the business of some of the operators continued to drop, and the lodges, hotels and transportation lino operated at a loss. The rail travel, which several years ago comprised the bulk of the travel to the park, is steadily decreasing and was only 4.2^ of the total travel. This naturally has been reflected in the business of the hotels, lodges and transportation company. There was a general tendency on the part of the visitors to shorten the length of their stay in the park and go through as cheaply as possible. Few were seeking' the higher type of accommodations, while the housekeeping cabins and the auto camps proved to be more popular. It is apparent that some changes will have to be made by the operators to meet the change in travel conditions. The Haynes Picture Shops, Inc., early in the season, adjusted prices to meet conditions. This proved to be a move in the right direction as will be reflected in the amount of business done by this company after the changes were put into effect. Due to the poor season last year, it uas agreed before the oper ing of this season that the Lake Hotel, Lake Lodge, Mammoth Hotel ar Roosevelt Lodge should remain closed this summer, which left only t» hotels, namely Old Faithful and Canyon, and three lodges, Old Faith* Canyon and Mammoth, operating. At no time during the summer '/ere H hostelries crowded. Visitors at hotels and lodges -/ere given the op tion between American plan or European plan rates, and this change n with general approval. Unexpectedly, the total travel' for the' year showed an increase over 1932, 161,938 people having entered this season as against 157 last year. Despite this increase in travel the number of rail visit was considerably behind last year, only 6787 rail visitors having er. ed at the four gateways as against 8572 last year, a loss of 21$. This-rail travel has been. on the decline for several years and the future is not bright for a very great increase, since most people ai vacationing in their own cars and the highways have now been so grea ly improved* • , ' Ths. summer was unusually dry and warm, a dangerous fire hazard existing. Thirty Seven fires occurred and the total area burned was 1 2287 acres. From June, 1932, to August of this year, there uas no month when the precipitation was above normal. Rains during the lat ter half of August were very helpful in checking the serious fires that were burning at that time. Much assistance was rendered by mer from the C.C.C. camps in combatting the fires in the various section and in most cases the men worked faithfully. The decrease in park appropriations had its effect on the laboi Situatien, it being impossible for us to reemploy many of our former: employees who reside near the park and depend upon work in the park during the summer for a livelihood. However, the Emergency Conserve tion Work program aided in relieving the unemployment situatien in i surrounding «ommunity and the road contractors who had contracts In the park provided employment for a number of men, T.~o contractors opera tod nearly all winter on the To" r er Falls-Mammoth and the Golder Gate jobs and afforded winter employment for a number of men. The new requirement that all National Park Service employees, except common laborers, be selected from Civil Service lists' added new difficulties in the . selection of . our help, but the men certified on registers included a, number of former employees and v/e were able to get some of the best men '..'ho worked in the park last year. Sever good employees were eliminated through age or residence. This is th first year we have been required to select our per diem employees fi' Civil Service and, while complications arose this year, it is belief ed that the system will work out- very satisfactorily for the future, All Government employees, including per diem workers, suffered "fifteen per cent cut in their salaries, beginning April 1, 1933, through the provisions of the "Act to Maintain the Credit of the United States Government" (approved March 20, 1933). The eight and one-third per cent cut which was put into effect in accordance with the provisions of tho "Economy Act" governed until April 1, 1933. Many compliments "crc received regarding improved sections of the highways in the park. The two standard oiled sections on the east entrance road and from Obsidian Cliff to Firchole Cascades particular- ly came in for much praise. Little delay or inconvenience "as ex- perienced by motorists on account of v/ork in progress. The new road through Golden Gate no' : affords a high -geared road from Mammoth to ■ Old Faithful and this new highway has eliminated many dangerous points. The newly graded road from Canyon to Tower Falls opens up a number of fine views and is now a high-geared road, as is also the section from Tower Falls to Mammoth. Motorists no longer suffer the inconvenience and discomfort of dust as the entire loop road has re- ceived at least some treatment with road oil. 7/ith the passing of the Public T ,7orks Bill, funds have been made available which will pro- duce important results in improving several sections of the park roads to conform with modern standards. Old Faithful and Canyon Lodges closed on September 5, while I am- moth Lodge remained open until September 13. The two hotels, Canyon and: Old Faithful, closed on this latter date. The transportation line .carried passengers until the 13th of September. The main housekeep- ing cabin units, at Old Faithful, Fishing Bridge and Canyon, closed on September 18, but meals and lodgings were obtainable at the Hamilton Stores at Old Faithful and Fishing Bridge until October 1. The housekeeping cabins at Manxioth closed, on September 25. For the second year the Yellowstone park Transportation Company did not operate its garage at 'Gardiner during the winter, but opera - tions wore resumed on April 1. Few buses were in evidence during the summer due to the continued decrease in rail travel. On June 20, Mr. C.A. Hamilton took over the bathhouse operations of H.P. Brothers and a new contract is to be drawn up which will cover this transfer. Mr. Hamilton immediately took steps to inclose the Old Faithful Bathhouse with glass. The nights in the park are usually too cool for bathing and it is believed that the Old Faith- ful pool will be more popular when it has been inclosed. Few park visitors failed to get a glimpse of wild, animals as there were many in evidence in all sections of the park. Moose were plentiful and were seen along the highways near Willow Park and Dunraven Pass as well as between Lake and Canyon. They were also in evidence most of the summer around the Canyon Hotel. A band of antelope remained all summer in the field near the Gardiner Arch and all visitors coming in via the north gate had an opportunity to sec see of these animals. Mountain sheep were seen on Mount Wash- burn, while a small band was seen in the Gardiner Canyon late in August. Bears were in evidence everywhere and, while they caused some trouble and damage, they nevertheless provided much pleasure and amusement to visitors* Measures taken last year to dispose of the worst trouble makers have had their effect and fewer complaints and damages resulted this year. There appears to be a considerable increase in the bear population, judging from the large numbers of 4 cubs that are seen. Many grizzly tears, with numerous cubs, were seer daily around the Canyon feeding ground and presented one of the finest wild animal shows to be found anywhere. Nearly every evening during the .summe^.. from thirty to fifty grizzlies made their appearance at tY\ feeding platform," At Old Faithful, alsO ; tic Dears wore fed a' ! - W\e ■ Bear. Lunch Counter ani. T?lile there were net is many grizzlies there a at Canyon- vh iters grfatly er- joyed the shov. -:,. ••The:, .jiccal chapter cf the Federal Employees Union., which ~int. organ] ed on-Apri.] ID, 3,932, continued to function and 'vis responsible for nau of the -loea.i entertainments ..luring the winter. About fifteen new mem- bers were takfE ir iftirir-g the year* At the regular monthly 'meeting ir January, noty.. oif leers were elected for the ensuing year as follows: Guy D, .Mv/rr h , Pros 3 dent; Frank 'Tatson, Vice-President; Joseph. Joffo J Secretary- Treasurer* Robert R, Robinson, Jr., Guardian. The Executive Committee seine tod consisted of Keith Neilson, Chairman; ,7.'T. Lathrop,i Fred T-; Johnston, Margaret Satin and Mary Miller. Meetings were held J the first Monday of each month with the exception of the summer months J July t August; and September. Secretary- Treasurer Joffe was' elected tc represent the local at + hc Kansae City convention /On September 4. The delegates at the Kansas City convention selected, the Yellowstone as their next meeting place, to be held the first week in September , 193c | On October 20, 1932, President Hoovur ] signed a proclamation addir.ij to the park approximately 7,600 acres of land* located in a triangular] shape, extending three and one-half miles from Gardiner toward Living-. stcn on the west side of the Yellowstone River, authorized 'by Congress,) ional Act.of May 26, 1926 (44 Stat. 655). This new addition has giver the park an area of about 3,438 square' miles, or approximately 2, 200, 2C acres. The land will afford additional winter range for the antelope I and elk grazing in this vicinity. On December 27, 1932, the Solicitor of the Department issued an opinion permitting the closing to hunting of this new area. On January 4, 1933, the Assistant Secretary -of the Interior accepted the deed dated October 14, 1932, excepting 38.2 acres of the land from the gam'u preservation property. This is the land occupied by Albert Hoppe , over which there has been considerable controversy. In September 1933 negotiations were completed for the purchase of the tract known as the slaughterhouse ranch and all of section 14, T 9 S, R 7 E, Montana Principal Meridian. The price for the 849.84 acres was $6,500, half of which was paid by the Game Pre- servation Company and half by the Government. Considerable interest was manifested in the Jackson Hole country in the hearings conducted by the Senate Subcommittee appointed to in- ! vestigatc the activities of the National Park Service and the Snake River Land Company. The committee consisted of Senators Gerald P. Nye, North Dakota, Chairman; Peter Norbeck, South Dakota; Henry F. Ashurst, Arizona; Alva E. Adams, Colorado; and Robert D. Carey, Wyo- ming. John C. Pickett of Cheyenne, Wyoming, acted as counsel for the Subcommittee. The hearings opened in the town of Jackson on the after noon of August 7 and continued until after might on the 10th. Numer- ous witnesses were examined and as the hearings were open to the public many local residents, ranchers and visitors attended all ses- sions. Newspaper men, representing the leading newspapers of the coun: 5 were also in attendance. The hearings are to be continued in Wash- ington at some time during the winter, when former Director Horace M. Albright, John D. Rockefeller, Jr., and others will be heard. >! n May 3, 1933, the Geographic Eoard approved the neming of two lakes ani xwo peaks on or near the east boundary lino between the pari and the Shocbore Forest, as follows: Grant Peak, Lairar Mount- • Bin. L'toneeup Lake, Guitar Lake. These names were recommended by the Public Survey office of the General Land Office which had a party of engineers under William P. Eandy in the pork last summer. During the summer two exhibits of the works of talented artists were held at the Haynes picture studio at Mammoth. Tne first exhi- bit was of the works of Clive Fell of Cody, Wyoming, and consisted mostly of etchings, while the second exhibit, that of Mrs. Lucile •Short Stinson,- featured pastels. Honorable Horace M. Albright voluntarily resigned as Director of the National Park Service, effective at the close of August 9, 1933,' to become Vice-President and General Manager of the United •..State's Potash Company.* For ten years Director Albright was Supcr- , intohdont of the Yellowstone and during his' regime an extremely high standard of off iciency • in administration and service was es- . tablished. V.hile his leadership and personality will be greatly missed, it is gratifying that Arno E. Cammcrei , formerly Associate Director, was appointed; as Directo". and that A.E. Dcmaray was promoted from'Assi stant Director to Associate Director. Director Albright remained in the Nati nal Park Service until it was merged into a larger organization. Director Cammcrcr, on August 10, assumed the leadership of the now organization, the Office of National parks, Buildings, and Reservations, which was established by Executive Order signed by the President on June 10, 1923, in accordance with the Act of March 3, 1933 (Public No. 428, 47 Stat. 1517). The new bureau includes, besides the National Parks and Monuments, all the parks and buildings in Washington 7/hich here- tofore have been un^.er the control of the Of i ice of Fublic Buildings and Public Parks, tne National military Parks and Monuments, Battle- field Sites, Memorials, and National Cemeteries. The new snow plow, purchased last year, proved very valuable in clearing the rofld from Mammoth to Lake, in an emergency that occurr- ed durlrg the winter. Ilyotte F. Bower, the Lake Lodge winter keeper sufx^r.d a h.art attack late in Dccembt-r and when his condition became serious it war necessary that he be brought out of the park to the hospital. With the roads blocked by snow, the fifty mile trek was impoL'siMe on snowshocs or skis so the snow plow was brought into play end on Dcccirbor 29, the road was opei.cd so that a car could get to the sicl: man. He was H;aken to the hospital in Livingston and his recovery ./as j'apidj but it was felt that the plow was instrumental in the saving of this man's life. 6 On April 8, 1933, the policy of the National Park Service with i gard to the sale of beer, wines and other beverages of legal alcohol j content in the national parks and monuments, in accordance with the i of Congress approved March 22, 1933 (Public No. 3, 73rd Congress) was announced. This policy permitted the sale of wines, beer and other beverages containing legal percentage of alcohol in natioial parks ar monuments, when consistent with the laws of the state, by operators authorized in their contracts to sell soft drinks and similar non- intoxicating beverages. Beer was placed on sale in the Yellowstone c May 18, the date that it was legalized for the State of Wyoming. One of the last official acts of Horace M. Albright as Director the National park Service was the allotment to the Yellowstone of th< largest amount of road construction funds in any one program in the park's history. Under the Public Works Program of the National In- dustrial Recovery Act, approximately sixteen million dollars were allotted for road and trail construction in the various national pari of which the Yellowstone received about a fifth or $3,369,450. This total includes $2,531,400 for major projects in the park, $736,000 fc approach roads leading to the park and $102,050 for minor projects. The latter part of September four contracts were awarded by the Bure? of Public Roads under this appropriation. These included the surfaci of the sections from Tower Falls to Lava Creek and from Mammoth to 01 sidian Cliff, and the grading of the sections from Bridge Bay to the Yellowstone rapids and from Arnica Creek to Lewis River. The end of the season was marked by three fatal accidents, the first, which occurred on August 31, resulted in the drowning in Yellc stone Lake of Dr. S. S. Magan, his son Bobby and George Spreckles, a] of Covina, California; the second, on September 17, resulted in the death by drowning in the Yellowstone River of Christopher Gray, of Creston, Montana; and the third, on September 30, resulted in the de? of Robert Weber, of Minneapolis, Minnesota, through injuries received in an automobile accident in Golden Gate. ADMINISTRATION Perso n nel : The permanent personnel consists of Roger W. Toll, 'Superintendent; Guy D. Edwards, Assistant Superintendent; Joseph Jof f e , Assistant to the Superintendent; Benjamin A. Hundley, Chief Clerk; Francis W. Watson, Disbursing Clerk; Parke W. Soule, Senior Clerk and Bookkeeper; Margaret F. Sabin, Senior Clerk; Vorna M. Roe, Clerk-Stenographer; Mary Miller, Clerk-Stenographer; Virginia Goettlich, Timekeeper; Keith Neilson, Purchasing Clerk; Edwin C. Stevens, Clerk in Chief Ranger's office. This force is augmented during the summer season with two clerk-stonographers, one statis- tical clerk, one publicity clerk and one card clerk. Also, one clerk, Constance Whitney, assigned to the Superintendent during the winter at his headquarters office in Denver on work in connection with inspection of proposed parks and monuments, is transferred to the park during the summer season. The maximum number of employees ^on the payroll at one time was 565, consisting of 74 permanent and 489 temporary employees. Appr opri a t i on s : Appropriations for the fiscal year 1952-55 fare as follows: Roads and Trails, National Parks $201,589.84 " " " , Emergency Construction, 1955 817,500.00 Donations, National Park Service 1,625.00 Extension of Winter Feed Facilities 477.50 Emergency Reconstruction and Fighting Forest Fires, 1952-55 8,673.07 Forest Protection and Fire Prevention, 1932-35 8,086.00 ^Yellowstone National Park, 1952-55 516,480.00 Revenue s for 1952 - 55 Fiscal Year : Revenues aggregating $149,795.14 were received from the following sources during the fis- cal year and deposited in the Treasury of the United States as Miscellaneous Receipts: Automobile and motorcycle permit fees #114,575.00 Franchise and permit fees 29,551.18 Electric current 2,254.60 Water 545.88 Miscellaneous 2,969.48 Franchises and Permits : On June 20 Mr. C. A. Hamilton took over the operations of H. P. Brothers, who has had the bathhouse privilege in the Yellowstone at Old Faithful and Fishing Bridge, far a number of years. A new contract covering the above operations is being drawn up. Mr. Hamilton expects to inclose i* glass the Old Faithful Bathhouse. Five saddle horse permits and four permits for hauling over park roads to Cooke, Montana, from Gardiner, Montana, were issued during the year * |1,000.00 additional reserved for Washington office expenditures and $5,280.00 as an unallotted reserve; &2.050 also transferred to Field Headnuarters . TRAVEL Park visitors this year totaled 161,938 as compared with 157,62 last year, an increase of 4,314. The rail travel figures were 6,787 a s : compared with 8,572 lhs% year, a decrease of 1,78-5. • A- comparisic of rail figures of this.- season and last year is as follows: - ..' Gateway North- West East South Total 1932 3,242 3,746 .3 ,£%,& _ 60' 1933 Gain 2,955 ; * 2,847 '" "966 6,787 ■Loss 287 89.9. 558 41. 1 , 78.5 *Rail trave.". accredited' t'o the West Entrance -during the tourist season of 1933 consisted of 2 ,,,146. -persons via - "the Oregon Short Line,., Railway (Union Pacific System), 328 via the C.M.St.P.& P. (Gallatin Gateway terminal of the Milwaukee) , and 20 persons from the Bozeman terminal of the • Northern Pacific, plus 353 temporary employees of the Govern- -.* -ment and park operators. ■ - ' •' •,"•'■■ #Rail travel through South Entrance consists of 11 persons entering from Victor, Idaho, on ^he union Pacific System and 8 entering at Lander ,' Wyoming,, from the Chicago and North Western Railway. Automobile visitors by'entfance gateways, as compared with last year are as follows: (This travel includes motorcycles and preseason automobile .visitors.) ,.. . ••..';•'/•- \- •". Gateway 1932 1933 Gain Loss North-. . . . Ea s t - . . . . 33,525 50,173 : 47,537 16,512 35,688 49 , 348 53,431 15,550 • 2,, 163 ; • •5,-894 ■ .'. 825 9^2 Total 147,747 154,017 6,270 The number of cars, and, visitors reported in daily counts at developed public campgrounds during the season : of 1933 are as follow Pes ig na ted De ve 1 oped Camp Ground s Cars West Yellowstone , ... .,, . .. . : 415 Fishing. Bridge ... ,•........ '.,'.'. . . : 11,188 Old Faithful . . . . . !": ''. J, 'l ''.' "V: . . : 5,645 Mammoth : 2,796 _, Campers 1,366 36,809 .... 18,566 9,199 •'<': Designated Developed Camp Gr ounds (cont'd) : Cars Carried forward : 20,044 Lake : 989 Canyon : 1,950 West Thumb : 1,672 Norris Junction .♦ : 480 Madison Junction : 755 Tower Falls : 435 Bridge Bay : Total : 26,265 Camper s 65,940 3,057 6,417 5,502 1,579 2,484 1,432 86,411 T otal _8 a ion T rave l by Entrance Gateways 1933 and 1932 Misc. : Bail : By Automobile By Motorcycle walk- : ing, : Pre- season : Total Visa-: Visi- : Visi- : horse-: visi- : Gateway : torjs Cars : tors Cars : tors back : tors Visitors 1933 North 2955 11100 ! 26932 34 . 50 532 : 8706 39175 West : 2847 14224 : 43380 40 56 227 5912 : 52422 East : ■ 966 : 16723 : 48930 49 61 : 338 4440 54735 South ' : 19 4857 15177 15 22 37 .351 15606 Total . *787 j 46904 ! 134419 138 189__ : 1134 ' 19409- 161938 1932 North 3242 . 10857 24923 : 13 19 756 8583 37523 West ! 3746 '. 15350 ! 43881 j 33 : 46 314 ', 6246 54232 East . 1524 '. 15322 '. 43215 : ^ : 79 215 j 4243 49276 South '.' 60 '. '5209 '. 15966 ! 8 12 20 534 16593 Total ! 8572 ! 46738 ! 127985 ! 108 '. 156 1305 ! 19606 " 157624 10 .; ' " . • NATURALIST DEPARTMENT No changes in the regular staff of this department were made dur 1933. The staff is as follows: Park Naturalist, C. Max Bauer; Assis- tant Park Naturalist, George. 0.. Crowe; Junior Park Naturalist, Henna G. Baggie y;. Janitor. Wilfred. J. Mead-. The summer staff included, seventeen ranger naturalists- one cler stenographer and' two laborers cr caretakers for the museums. Three the ranger naturalists were designated senior ranger naturalists and they directly supervised the naturalist activities a: Fishing Bridge, Old Faithful and Mammoth Hot Springs. The museums were opened and clcsed for the season as follows: Mammoth Museum opened Juno ll, - ' Closed September 20; Old Faithful Muse opened June 18, closed September 18: Fishing Br id go Museum opened Jun 18, closed September 18; Herri s Museum/opened June 20, closed Septemb 13; Madison Museum opened July 1, closed August 29. The construction and installation of the trailside museums and roadside field exhibits carried on under .the .direction of Dr. K* C* Bumpus of the American Association of Museums, in cooperation with thtfj National Park Service, 'automatically' came to an end during the wintern 1933 when the- funds supplied: by the association-. were used up. The pnvl gram of development -of Yellowstone Park museums for which Dr. Bumpus and associates were largely responsible is completed for the western i southern parts of the park. . The beautiful buildings 1 and the modern clean cut installation of exhibits have brought forth many favorable j comments from visitors'.-. : - An outside amphitheater: was added to the Old Faithful Museum by funds provided by the American Association of Museums. Also through 11 same source trailside or roadside field exhibits were built' at Rhyo- I Travertine Gulch, Swan Lake Fiat, Be&ver Bams, Nymph Lake, Tuff Cliff I and Fir eh old Canyon.- Four of these were installed by Dr. Carl P. Rusi and Kir. Herbert Maier this season. This summer the -Old Faithful court has been planted with grass, flowers, trees and shrubs and makes a creditable showing of local plaijj life; : Much improvement has been made at the Mammoth Museum. First, the) offices were all moved into the north end of '.the building. Second, th old office and library was renovated and made into a fine exhibit roan geology. Third, the space under the new offices was excavated, a stair- way built, cement, floor put in and plastered .and painted. This now h& the Yellowstone Library.' Fourth, "the main basement was renovated and! painted for workshop and storage rooms. Fifth, a rearrangement of exl- in the museum gives a clean cut and professional air to the displays, j During the winter the Yellowstone Library and Museum Association formed to care for donations and other funds received for the developm: of the library and museums. 11 "Nature Notes" is now published bi-monthly and each issue is [•e or less devoted to one subject. Because of the large mailing ht of about 750, it is deemed advisable not to publish monthly as is necessary to conserve paper and materials. A twenty-power telescope has been installed at the water front the Fishing Bridge Museum and another of- the same type on top of |mt Washburn. Field Naturalist Carl P. Russell was in the park for six weeks is season installing Field Exhibits and revising some former in- ,allations . This year we have had excellent cooperation from the Princeton ological Research School, and students from Columbia University and b University of Chicago. They have reported to the Park Naturalist eir findings and their contributions to the geological knowledge the region have been very valuable . Lectures , Guided Trips and Auto Treks: These services rendered the Naturalist Department are well received by the visitors. Many .ture lovers have commented on the excellent character of the work ud the additional enjoyment they received from the park through this srvice. An effort is being made to give accurate information in ich a manner that it will be entertaining and not tedious. Summer Activities - Educational Department Field Trips Le< ?tures Museums : Auto Caravans tat ion : No. Att. No. : Att. Att. : No.: Cars :Att. ammoth 242 4533 : 158 8116 44912 : 94:1191: 447(- adison : 29 374 . 192 : 741C : 12403 * orris 299 7614 . 150 : 6173 : 29572 ! I Id Faithful ; 143 : 8440 172 : 83922 ; 67379 : 90:2164 708 V est Thumb : 82 3622 55 4323 : ishing Bridge 82 ' 250* 92 30057 37741 77: 667 2595 anyon 136 3242 252 . 43089 69: 841' 2930 ount Washburn : 3687 11305 : j TOTAL 1013 30331 4758 : 194395 192007 : 330:4863. 170<?3 GEYSERS AND HOT SPRINGS Mammoth Hot Spring s: Monthly observations have been made through- Lit the year and the information carded. The most outstanding observat- ion is that all hot water activity changes considerably from week to eek and this is especially true of the Mammoth Hot Springs. Two springs hat have not been particularly active for thirty or fsrty years were lowing all season. They are the Palette Spring and the Opal Spring n the lower terrace not far above the Hotel Terrace. Angel Spring has een particularly active on the southwest end of the terrace. Hymen pring is much smaller this year. 12 Norris Geyser Basin : The interval for Valentine is now well determined .as 20 hours. It is powerful and quite regular. Whirligig' has an interval of one hour and 25 minutes and erupts for twenty mi nu1 Emerald Spring is rather quiet again. Ebony Geyser erupts about .ever} eight hours. A new blue print map of the basin was made by a temporar ranger andi 'completed .by the Engineering Department. Lower Geyser Basin ; No particular changes have been noted' in' the activity in this area. However several geysers northwest of the Foun- tain Geyser are often .seen in eruption. These include Jet, Clepsydra and a geyser about 400 yards northwest of the latter. • Upper Geyser Basin : This season Rainbow Pool in the Black Sand Basin has 'become hotted and. killed the algae» boiling violently it erupts to a -height of 30 feet about every 20 minutes. Since this is quite near to the Old Handkerchief Pool, it has been affected. Since ' August 10 the old Handkerchief Pool has been able to circulate hand- kerchiefs as it did prior to 1928. The following geysers have fairly; regular intervals: Old Faithful, 65 minutes; Daisy, 90 minutes; Riverside, 8 hours, Grand, 20 .hours. The Giant has played at least three times this summer, June \ : 2V- July 25, and August 19. ... ■ . , '■ i. West Thumb Basin : Lakeshore. Geyser has been observed often this season. The Paint Pots were especially colored and beautiful. The Twin Geysers did not erupt so violently as last year, but, behaved much as they have for many years past. PROTECTION DEPARTMENT General : The activities of the Protection Department in the ob- ' servation and protection of the fauna and natural features were carrie' on in the usual manner during the year. The summer activities were somewhat curtailed due to decrease in temporary personnel and the many forest fires which occurred. ' ' • Personnel : George F. Baggley, Chief Ranger; three assistant ChieJ Rangers, George W. Miller, Francis D. LaNoue, and Fred T. Johnston; twenty-four permanent rangers; a Chief Buffalo Keeper; Assistant Buffalo Keeper; buffalo herder, night watchman and twenty-four tempore 1 ; rangers, made up the personnel of the deparhnent. Winter Activities : Winter activities consist of the usual and special patrols for the protection and observation of the wild life and waterfowl; also, for the observation of snow depths, weather condr tions, river gauging stations,' study and research on assigned subjects relating to game, maintenance of telephone lines, care of buildings, feeding of game, predatory animal control, special assignments to forestry and planning work.. ', Summer Activities : Su-imer activities consist of manning the checking stations, traffic control, fire prevention and suppression, 13 aw enforcement, dispensing information, contacting the public and oecial visitors, rationing and repairing of snowshoe cabins, trail Maintenance and construction, fish propagation and special assign- >nts. The Emergency Conservation Work program required considerable ttention during the summer by members of the permanent force. Forestry : The progress of the mountain beetle epidemic in Yellow- tone National Park has teen carefully watched fcr the past three 3ars. Extensive and systematic surveys were again made during the ast year. These surveys revealed the fact that in all known areas f infestation practically no increase or decrease in intensity of he epidemic was evident. Throughout the areas surveyed it was found bat for every tree attacked by the beetles in 1931 there was a new- y attacked tree in 1932. It was found that in the Mt. Washburn 3ction of the park the epidemic was showing evidence of creeping nto the scenic area in close proximity to the main highways, so 3commendations were made for control work to be instigated in the pring. This control work was undertaken in June and July of 1933, fat because it was necessary to use inexperienced E.C.W. men and cause of late snows delaying the start of the work, the project as only partially completed. Approximately 400 beetle infested rees near the main highways were felled and burned which will un- Dubtedly reduce the intensity of the infestation in this area. It as been learned this summer that the large infestation of mountain ine beetle west of the park has been partially checked by winter- ill caused by the unusually low temperatures of the past winter, be Bureau of Entomology has recommended that a thorough survey be ade again this fall to determine if it is now practicable to conduct program of control work with the object of checking the epidemic n the northern Rocky Mountain region. An aerial survey and thorough round examination will be made of the infested areas in the park in onnection with this wide spread survey. Forestry and fire protection work has received considerable ttention during the past summer since the establishment of four .C.W. camps in the park. A large amount of work of various kinds as been accomplished. Work such as forest clean-up, campground mprovement, reforestation in needed places, roadside clean-up, mctor- ay, trail, boat dock, telephone line and bridge construction has ept most of the 800 men busy for the period of their stay in the park. In May two crews of five men each wore placed in the field to 'ntinue the type mapping project which was begun in 1930. The mapping |ork has progressed remarkably v/ell this season. Most of the north jection of the park and a large portion of the central and southern crtion will have been completed by the end of this field season. his will leave only one more season's work to be done before the ntire project will be complete. The field data will be compiled and racings of the field map will be made in the Chief Ranger's office uring the winter. Fire Protection : July and August of this year were extremely Lot and dry, creating a fire hazard as serious as that of JCSKL. On 14 August 14, following a lightning storm, nine fires were reported in one day, but all except two were quickly suppressed. This year, as i usually the case, the most destructive fires were caused by lightning There has been a total of 37 fires in the park this season. Nin teen of them were caused by lightning and 18 were man caused. The largest fire, the Mountain Ash Creek, No. 3 fire, turned 850 acres. is i: : teresting to note that as early as May 28 one fire turned over 75 -acres of national forest land and 24 acres in the park before it could be suppressed. Early in the season each E.C.W. camp was organized for fire figh: ing emergency. Lectures were given to the men in each camp relative to fire control and in each camp a group of 25 to 30 men was organizec into a fire fighting squad for first line defense. This group was called the flying squadron, and detailed information and demonstration in'fTfe fighting methods" were' given them. Much of the labor for suppressing fires this summer was drawn from the E.C.W. camps, but because of the inexperience and inadaptabi|| of most of these men, it was necessary also to use some local labor and men from regular maintenance crews in order to secure prompt and effective action on fires. The work being done by the E.C.W. in connection with our fire pro] tection program will be of value in our fire control work in the futua The work being done on fire trails, motorways, boat dock, corrals andii other physical improvements is of very good quality and in desired locations. Trail Construction , Maintenance and Improvement : ■ Trail crews of one or two men each wore kept busy at the main points of interest as long as necessary, to maintain and improve the trails. Buffalo Ranch Activit ies: Buffalo Ranch activities consisted mainly of care of the buffalo herd, repair and maintenance of equipmei and irrigation and cultivation of hay fields. During December, 1932, one hundred and ninety-nine surplus buffalo were slaughtered. The meat was given to the various Indian agencies in Montana and Wyoming, and also to the relief organizations in these two states. Three hundred and fourteen tons of hay and 29 tons of cottonseed cake were fed to 750 buffalo last winter. Hay harvested at the Buffaj Ranch this year will amount to approximately 300 tons as compared witl 476^ tons .last year. Drought conditions have materially reduced the supply of wild grasses available for forage and it will be necessary to supplement the hay crop by the purchase of additional hay. Hay Ranches : On the Slough Creek, Gardiner and Game Ranches, 37' tons of hay were fed to the wild animals as compared with 691 tons last year. Only 36 tons of hay were fed on the Game Ranch and six tons on the Gardiner Ranch as compared with 118 tons and 70 tons, respectively, on these two ranches last year. 15 Hay will be harvested this year approximately as follows: Buffalo Ranch Slough Creek Yancey Gardiner Game Ranch .Total •- ' "; Last year's hay harvest was:' Buffalo Ranch Slough' Creek' '"" Yancey Gardiner Game Ranch Total 300 tons 300 tt 30 M 35 »! ;. ' 1 665 tons .. 476 tons ;470; »t • 30 (i 60 »t 30 n 1066 tons Tie effect of the protracted drought which existed during the most |>f the, summer is clearly shown in the hay crop. Predat ory Animal s: One hundred and forty-five coyotes were estroyed as compared with 109 last year and 98 in 1931. Wild Life in the Park : • The game animals came through' the 'Inter in very good condition considering that the winter was one >f unusually low temperatures, high winds and heavier snows than or several years. The losses that occurred were principally the inter-killing of aged animals. Only one game count was made this year. The counts and es- imates are given in the following table: Wild Life Count for 1933 Actual Count Estimated Total .:_ Increase Condition rild Animals : 1932 1933 1932 1933 ;1932 : 1933 1932 1933 Jitelope' 668 599 668 : 700 .:, Yes : Yes . Good Good Iffalo 1,016 ,' 985* 1,016 1,000 :• Yes Yes Excel. Excel. Jeer 885 396 885 850 i : Yes : No ■ Fair 'Poor ]lk lorthern Herd ,10,624 11, SI 10,624 12,500 : Yes : Yes Good Excel. Ilk Ilia tin Herd 2,499 1,822 3,499 2,450 : Yes No Good Excel. CLk : lit. of Park 672 ! • 448 672 - 600 : — ? Good Excel. foose 90 71 700 700 : No Excel. Excel. Jheep 86 82 : 150 150 : No : ? . Poor Fair 16 Wild Life Count for 1933 (continued) Wild Animals Bears Grizzly Bears Black Actual Count 1932 113 306 1933 125 323 Estimated Total 1932 213 517 1933 260 525# Increase Cond:t: 1932 :1933 : 1932 Yes : Yes :Excel.:Ex< Yes : Yes : Excel. :E3;i Note: * Does not include 175 estimated calf . crop.. # Does not include 17 killed as dangerous. The long period of drought which extended throughout most of the : summer has had a marked effect on the forage conditions over the entir winter range. Available forage will be considerably less than normal this season. Conditions are so unfavorable as to cause apprehension for the welfare of the .game animals during the coming winter. Bears , Black : Injuries and damages caused by. black bears de- creased 65 per cent due to control measures. Bears , Grizzly : Griz'zly bears were seen nightly at the feeding grounds at Old Faithful and Canyon. As many as 51 of these bears 'were seen at the Canyon feeding grounds in one evening. Two grizzly bears were shipped to a public zoo. Smaller Animals : Large numbers of beavers, marten, marmots, etc. were seen over the entire park and proved a source of much pleasure for park visitors. • Waterfowl : Ducks, geese and other birds were , observed in the usual large numbers during the past summer and. fall. Several pairs of trumpeter swans nested in the park on the more remote lakes. Fish Planting : It is gratifying to report that the collection of black-spotted trout eggs at the Yellowstone Park ha.tchery operated by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries under the supervision of Fred J. Foster, Supervisor, exceeded any previous year with the possible exception of 1922. The total collections this year of this species were 28,234,000; These eggs were of excellent quality and eyed approximately ninety per cent. The collections this year exceeded by more than ten million those of 1932 and is the fifth consecutive year -in -which collections have increased each year over the previous year, attesting to the ex-, cellent condition of Yellowstone Lake and tributaries from. a fish- cultural standpoint. • -'.- ; One million of these eggs were shipped to Glacier National Park, 1,000,000- to Grand Teton National Park, 300,000 to.-Mount Rainier Natio Park, and- 1,000,000 eggs were shipped to the State Fish Hatchery, A.sht Idaho,., in "a cooperative agreement for planting ' the- Bechler River secti of Yellowstone- Park and a like number: to U. S. fisheries Station at Bozeman, Montana, for the waters on the west side of Yellowstone Park, these shipments being necessary by reason of congestion in the Yellows Lake Hatchery and to eliminate linger trips in distributing the fish. 17 In addition to the above shipments, shipments were made'to the following state game departments and province of Canada: Idaho - ; 2,600,000; Oregon - 3,550,000; New Mexico - 1,400,000; Nevada - ! 100^000; .Washington - 300,000; Utah - 150,000; Wyoming - 3,200,000; Colorado -.300,000; Oregon - 500,000; Alberta, Canada - 1,250,000; making a total , of 15,650,000 eggs shipped from the park during the year. ■* » ..A total of 7,675,000 fish were hatched and returned to park waters from the Yellowstone Lake hatchery. This number will, of course, be increased by the fish still being held at the Bbzeman ! hatcherjvof the Bureau of Fisheries and the Ashton State Hatchery. An outstanding development during the past year in Yellowstone Park has been the successful handling of grayling eggs at the new Grebe Lake hatchery. A total of 2,118,400 grayling eggs were col- lected, which hatched 94.4 per cent, this being a record for the hatching of grayling eggs so far as is known. All of the resulting fry were planted in waters of Yellowstone Park (1,950,000), with the exception of 50,000 shipped into Utah. In addition to the plants made from Yellowstone Lake and Grebe Lake hatcheries, there were planted, during the calendar year 1932, from the Mammoth rearing pools and direct from the Bozeman, Montana, hatchery of the Bureau of Fisheries a total of 121,000 brook trout, 124,000 rainbow trout and 36,000 Loch Leven trout, all of these being fingerlings of large size. There remain on hand at the Mammoth rearing pools approximately 190,000 rainbow trout fingerlings which will be distributed during September. Mr. Lowell Woodbury has continued his investigations of para- sites in Yellowstone Park, and Dr. John W. Scott, Professor of Zoology of the University of Wyoming, has spent approximately sixty days working in cooperation with the Bureau of Fisheries and the Park Service in study of the Diphyl obothrium parasites. The improved appearance of the hatchery grounds by reason of the erection of log barriers and parking area has been instrumental in increasing the attendance at the aquarium and hatchery, many favorable comments being received as to the aquarium exhibit and the Tishcultural operations. The principal construction at Yellowstone park was the erection of a grayling hatchery at Grebe Lake. This building is 30 feet long by 18 feet wide and contains a hatching room equipped with two batteries of hatching jars and quarters for attendants. Fishing conditions in the park are excellent, the number of fish caught this season having surpassed the record of the best previous year by 11.7 per cent. YELLOWY NATIONS RK LIBRARY 18 ■'engineering department ■...-... .'O'Work in this division is carried on under the direction of Park -Engineer C. A. Lord and includes supervision of road and- trail ma i arte nance.,, surveys and plans for road 'and trail construction built as force account projects, engineering direction of physical improve- ments, sewer and water systems, and all necessary engineering assis- tance in the w#2?k -of other departments. . Road .maintenance covers 361 miles of highway, 310 miles of which is within .the. jpa.rk boundaries, 24 miles in the east approach road through the Shoshone National Forest, and 27 miles of the south, approach road between Moran and the south entrance. That portion of the system inside the park limits is divided into 210 miles of main loop ;.and entrance connections, 45 miles of subsidiary or side trip sections, and 55 miles of service- roads serving the. various, utility; areas', both Government and public operators. %■■: .. \ .■/' Approximately 120 miles of the main loop system is now of. stand- ard highway type with 74 miles paved with crushed rock or gravel, treated!; with asphaltic .road oil. With the exception of the Cooke section, -all other, sections' are annually given light oiling treat- ment for dust prevention and the maintenance of better surface condi- tions. ' *■ ■'•"«" To carry on maintenance activities, fifteen camps are establishe< &t' suitable points in the park, with crews varying from six to fiftee: men and necessary motor equipment, depending on the condition and im- portance of the section. The rotary snow plow, purchased late in the spring of 1932, prove of material benefit in the item of snow removal. While the aggregate cost of this item was not greatly reduced, a much greater mileage was covered and it was possible to open the road system to traffic at an earlier date and in much better condition than would have been possibi with the old hand clearing methods. Reduced appropriations made it necessary to curtail maintenance activities to some extent, especially the item of roadside clean-up, but better than average weather conditions and a comparatively light volume of traffic aided in keeping the system in a reasonably satis- factory condition. On the south approach road the southerly six miles, which sectioi has been under grading and surfacing construction by the Bureau of Public Roads for the past two seasons, was turned back to the Park Service for maintenance. This section was given a fairly heavy treat- ment of road oil and the remaining 21 miles given a dust palliative treatment, bringing the entire section to a much more satisfactory col tion than any of its tributary roads. 19 In addition to regular maintenance on the east approach ?road, approximately $8,000 was expended from emergency funds in a. surfacing and oiling project on this section, bringing (surface conditions to a state more nearly comparable with adjacent sectfons east to .Cody. ... Force account construction projects for the period consisted of surfacing and oiling on the Artist Point road, the construction of extensive parking area development at Norris Museum and Obsidian Cliff j and an extension of the hard surfaced footpath system over the Old Faithful thermal area,pf approximately 4,000 lineal feet. Post construction maintenance of contract projects was continued on the east entrance road and on the Obsidian Cliff -Firehole Cascades sections, with the balance of funds remaining from the previous season and new work undertaken on the Terraces-Obsidian and Tower Falls-Lava Creek section. The following projects constructed by contract; under the super- vision of the Bureau of Public Roads have been completed or are fast nearing completion: Grading between Tower Junction and Lava Creek on the Tower Junction-Mammoth section: surfacing and palliative oiling on the Canyon- Tower Junction section; grading of the Terraces-Obsi- dian Cliff section. The last named project was unique in park road construction in that it was carried on through the winter months with the exception of about a two week layoff because of very severe weather conditions. On May 22 tho tunnel constructed during the winter through Golden Gate caved in, necessitating the use of the road around the point during the entire summer. SANITATION DEPARTMENT This work is carried on under the supervision of H. B. Hommon of the United States Public Health Service, and under tho direct charge of William Wiggins. Mr. Hommon made a thorough inspection of our entire operations during the latter part of July and outlined necessary corrective measures. Mr. Wiggins makes regular sanitary inspections as outlined by Mr. Hommon. As no construction or extension funds were allotted this depart- ment for the fiscal year 1934, the principal work of the department besides the regular maintenance was the completion of the new oil burning equipment and two steam boilers in the bachelor building as a central heating plant for the bachelor building, guest house and post master's quarters and superintendent's residence. This depart- ment also supervised the installation of twelve gas pumps with under- ground storage tanks at various places in the park, in addition to installing a 4,000 gallon gasoline tank at Mammoth. At the Buffalo Ranch bunkhouse there was installed a shower room, besides toilet and lavatory, and 220 feot of sewer lino were laid to connect this room to septic tank. New showers were installed in both the Thumb and Canyon bunk- houses. In addition, several other minor plumbing improvements were 20 made at the Tower Falls messhouse and in several other buildings in the park.. ...Two new chlorine machines were also installed for use on the new Mammoth .sewer system. This department had charge of the ex- cavation, .concrete and plumbing work in the new library and workshop completed during the winter under the museum building at Mammoth. In. addition, 22 water systems, 29 sewer systems, and 5 incinera-ll tors ^ were operated and maintained. We did not operate the sixth inS ciherator, located' at Thumb, due: to our limited finances. Many camp-*! grounds and parking areas in the park were also operated and maintain*! by this department. The heating systems at Mammoth, including 14 steam boilers, were also operated and maintained by this department. The tinsmith work in this department is. also an important item as there are so many 'metal roofs on -hud Id i rigs at Mammoth to keep in re- pair. - .;'•'"" ,.' : "■'<■ ' • • !- •.':■■ -. v: ••■ ELECTRICAL AND TELEPHONE DEPARTMENT '• '■'• ' # * ■ This department is in charge, of- Chief Electrician Charles C. Dale and includes three permanent .power plant operators and one per- manent, telephone operator. :■'■ . ..■ The following table shows the production of power plant at Mammo" and the distribution of current: - '■* ' '**'' - 1932-35 1933- 34 Sold to park operators . ... . ...-•',. 64,253 44,565 Street lighting ....'.. . . 25,491 ;.! ■ ;. . ; -51,280 Used by Government buildings for ; : - light and power. . ... ... . . .. .647,596 690,074 Total Production . ... 937,140 765,919 Fifteen miles of telephone line between Lake Junction and' the east entrance were rebuilt with cedar poles and # 8.'coppefweld' wire, making .it a metallic circuit and giving better transmission. Seven miles of the line between Tower Falls Junction and Cooke entrance, were rebuilt with cedar poles and galvanized iron wire .' Eleven miles of til Mb* Washburn telephone line were also rebuilt with native poles and • galvanized iron wire . ' -■ . One-half mile of power line was built to connect up with the : chlorine house at Mammoth. ..Also there was extended one-half mile of. power line from Mammoth to the E.C-.W. camp near Mammoth. In addition to the above improvements, the usual electrical and telephone maintenfi work was .carried out. -The Government now maintains 591 miles' of metaDi circuits and 151 miles of grounded circuits, which includes 210 conned telephones. ■■ , ' , BUILDUP 'MAINTENANCE. AND CONSTRUCTION All. carpenter work is under the supervision of Master Carpenter 1 A-». -, -Bowman. All painting is' under the supervision of Master Painter !• N. Tompkins. 21 Due to the impounding of all building construction funds for the seal year 1934, the principal work in the building department as ndled by the Master Carpenter and Master Painter consisted of gen- el repairs to the existing Government buildings in the park, total- ig 219. One duplex residence at Mftmmoth was remodeled, making two :ts of quarters. The rooms over the office annex were also remodeled, .king a very comfortable apartment for a small family. Some remodeling was also done in the basement under the Mammoth tseum, making this room, which was waste space, into a very modern aall library and museum workshop. This new library room now houses 1 of the books of the Yellowstone Park Library and is as fireproof ? any room at Mammoth, the walls being concrete and stone. The new ranger station at the west entrance was also completed j the contractor, making one of our best ranger stations. MECHANICAL DEPARTMENT This department is in charge of Master Mechanic Robert R. Robin- Dn and includes six permanent mechanics, one permanent handyman echanic, one permanent blacksmith, two temporary handyman mechanics nd one temporary blacksmith. Cars, trucks and new equipment purchased during the year include he following: Cars - one 5-passenger sedan; trucks - seven 2g--ton; wo 1/2- ton; four l/4-ton; equipment - one 12- ton four wheel trailer; tie 3/8-yard gasoline shovel; one sewage pump; one revolving road room; one traffic striping machine. EMERGENCY CONSERVATION WORK The Act of Congress of March 31, 1933, authorized the establish- snt of a Civilian Conservation Corps to undertake what President Dosevelt called Emergency Conservation Work. Mr. Robert Fechner of assachusetts was appointed as Director of this work, and an advisory ouncil, consisting of representatives of the Secretary of War, the Bcretary of the Interior, the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary f Labor and the Bureau of the Budget was also selected. Active Emergency Conservation Work began in Yellowstone Park on une 2 when the cadres for Camps 1, 2 and 3 arrived. These camps ere located at Mammoth, Canyon and Lake, respectively. The main ompanies arrived on June 7 and the average strength of each company, ncluding 25 or 30 enrolled men for each camp, was 200. On June 10, the cadre for Camp No. 4, located on the West allatin road, arrived and the main company followed on June 23. ith 25 local men, this company had an enrolled strength of 212. The local quotas were made up from the surrounding states of 22 Montana, Wyoming and Idaho, while the regular personnel was recruited from the State of New York, principally New York City and Brooklyn, the 155 local enrolled men, Wyoming furnished 92; Montana, 53; and Id 30. The camps were organized in a prescribed manner, the Army being responsible for the housing, feeding and clothing of the men, and the National Park Service being responsible for the various work projectst Assistant Chief Ranger Francis D. LaNoue acted as general superi tendent for the four camps and was assisted by other members of the permanent force from time to time. Captain M. G. Rees was the comman officer of Camp No. 1, Mammoth, with John M. Brokaw as superintendent Captain Donald C. Hawley commanded Camp No. 2, Canyon, with Arthur Jacobson, superintendent; Captain B. T. Ipock commanded Camp No. 3, L with Edwin P. Landers, superintendent; r/hile Camp No. 4, Gallatin, wa commanded by Lieutenant G. J. Dutermann, with Richard E. Slattery as superintendent . The National Park Service supplied all camps with tools, heavy equipment and trucks for work and for transportation. There were ass to Emergency Conservation Work in Yellowstone 20 trucks, 6 pickups an 4 tractors. The organization and construction of the camps required consider time, but as the camps neared completion and the men became familiar with the work and the country, there was a steady increase in the wor produced. Some of the undesirables and trouble makers were discharge from camp, thereby improving the morale of the men and the accomplish ment of work. As the men acquired experience, improved in physical o tion and adapted themselves to the change in environment, their work improved. The President's desire to take several hundred thousand yo men out of the cities and put them at healthful ■tfork in forest areas undoubtedly achieved successful results. In the Yellowstone the men engaged in the repair of telephone lines, bank erosion control and roadside clean-up, clean-up of old dump grounds, campground clean-up, truck trail construction, construction of fire protection trails, Ian scaping, range improvements, reforestation, insect control, removal o: old fences, repairing and building new fences, removal of old buildin, and fire suppression work. PARK OPERATORS The slight increase in travel over the 1932 season was not refle in an increased business for the operators. Therefore, the purchaso new equipment and nevf construction activities were held to a minimum, provements made by the operators during the period from October 1, 19 through August, 1933, are as follows: Yellowstone Park Hotel Company : Because it was the poorest seaso: in the history of the company, nothing was done except to take care o: repairs and renewals absolutely required. 23 Yellowstone Park Lodge and Camp s C ompany : A building 14 feet by- feet was erected in the Old Faithful housekeeping area, to be used 'rtly as an employees' laundry and partly as a woodhouse. A chlorin- ing machine was purchased for Canyon Lodge and will be installed the spring of 1934. _C. A. Hami lton: C. A. Hamilton has purchased the park operations H. P. Brothers, consisting of swimming pools and bathhouses. He now extensively remodeling the pool at Old Faithful which will Completed early in June. He has installed "Frosted Foods" in his d Faithful Auto Camp and Fishing Bridge stores. These cases make ssible the sale of frosted meats, fruits and vegetables by the ckage . Pryor and Trischma n: Have installed a new refrigerator case the Mammoth store, have made some building improvements there and ve painted the interior of the Canyon store. Hayncs Picture Shop s, Ir.c . : The Hayncs Picture Shops report ly general maintenance for the year. The Haynes Log Cabin studio, ■ected in 1897 in front of the present site of Old Faithful Inn, was zed and rebuilt in the utility area at Old Faithful for a photo nishing plant. Yellowstone Park Transportation Com pany: This company added no iw equipment and engaged in no new construction. Yellowstone Park Boat Company : Reports no new equipment and no w construction. I, I Yellowston e Park Fuel Company : This company added no new equip- 'snt and reports no new construction. . COOPERATING BUREAUS The Bureau of Public Roads, the United States Public Health irvice, the Bureau of Entomology, the Bureau of Fisheries, the jather Bureau, the War Department, the Forest Service and others We all cooperated to the fullest extent with officials of the itional Park Service in Yellowstone Pork during the year just closed. Post Offic e: In addition to the main post office, known offi- Lally as "Yellowstone Park, Wyoming", five summer stations are main- lined during the summer season, located in general stores at Old lithful, Fishing Bridge, Lake Outlet, Canyon Junction and Tower alls. These have daily connections by star route service, and the 3ute also serves road camps, ranger stations, E.C.W, camps and others Long the route which is approximately 140 miles long. With the exception of Postal Savings which shows a heavy increase, tie business of the post office is approximately twenty per cent less 24 than last year, regardless of the fact that park travel is heavier to date. Bureau of Public Roads : During the winter of 1932-33 work was carried on, under contract, on the construction of the Golden Gate pro-' ject, E l-A-4, which consisted of one mile of grading, a viaduct 300 feet long and a 100 foot tunnel. Work on this project was under the supervision of the Bureau of Public Roads and the engineering party consisted of E. 0. Anderson as resident engineer, assisted by S. N. Bushnell and S. W. Rixey. Office; and living quarters for the party were furnished by the Park Service in a house in Mammoth which was quite comfortable and adequate during the cold winter months. Work on the project during the coldest months consisted of rock excavation at the ends of the tunnel, excavation of the tunnel and placing hand laid rock embankment. This work was prosecuted in the winter time while the road was closed to traffic because of the im- possibility of excavating rock without blocking the road. As a whole, road construction work in the park in the winter time is not con- sidered practicable or advisable, on account of the extreme cold,' heavy snow, and bitter winds, which reduce the efficiency of both men and machinery. Weather Bureau : The period covered by this summary is from September, 1932, to August, 1933, both months included, and cover observations made at Manmoth Hot Springs. Of these twelve months five averaged above normal in temperature with seven below. The period was characterized by a warm summer and a long, cold winter. The warmest June of record, excepting only June, 1900, followed a cool May. The warmest July since 1901 followed. August came along in turn, with temperatures near normal until the 21st, when a change to much cooler weather occurred. The autumn months of 1932 produced a seasonal deficiency in temperature. The winter months of December and February were far below normal, while January was a little above. In the spring, March averaged somewhat above normal, but April and May both showed greater departures from normal in the other direction. The records show only two colder Decembers than that of 1932, the average temperature of which was 11.9 degreos, or 9.7 degrees above normal. February, 1933, with a departure of -9.5 degrees, had a mean or average temperature of 10.2 degrees, the coldest February in the record books. Another notable fact appearing in the records of the past year is that January was decidedly ?/armer than December. Freezing weather occurred on August 30 and 31, 1932. The first freezing weather within the twelve months included in the present summary was on the morning of September 9; the last was noted on May 28. The first zero temperature was late at night on December 6; the last was registered on March 5. February was not only the coldest February in the records, but it established a new extreme for the 25 nonth, with a temperature of 40 degrees below zero on the 9th. This jras the lowest point of the winter march of temperature. The maximum of the summer was 91 degrees on July 25. This was braced by maxima of 90 degrees on the day before and the day after. Every month of the twelve, excepting August, had less than normal precipitation. August, 1933, was the first month since June, 1932, to exceed the normal amount of precipitation. The total precipitation for the eleven months preceding August, 1933, was 8.55 inches; this was barely over half the normal amount, for the departures for the same period total -8,42 inches. Snowfall totalled 97 inches, comparing favorably with the normal of 98 inches. Only October, December and January were above normal in snowfall. A trace of snow, or more, fell every day in January, constituting a record hitherto absent for any month. The greatest snowfall within 24 hours was 4.2 inches, on January 27-28. The greatest depth of snow on the ground during the winter was 12.6 inches, on February 23. Depths of 12 inches or more occurred in January, February and March. Hail fell in an amount sufficient to cover the ground on Mav 2. The winter was unusually cloudy. Not one day in November or January averaged clear. There were 20 cloudy days in November, 20 in December, 27 in January, 19 in February, 18 in March, 12 in April, and 16 in May. July, on the other hand, had but three days that averaged cloudy. With its 27 cloudy days, January set a new record of percen- tage of possible sunshine for the month; the January, 1933, per- centage of possible was 14. This same month established a new record for wind movement, 11.6 miles per hour average velocity. February was also brisk, but not record-breaking, with an average hourly vel- ocity of 10.3 miles. The first thunderstorm of the season was recorded on May 15. Thunder was heard on 22 days, May to August, inclusive. Light fog was observed on October 16 and 17, February 23, March 3 and April 30. Dense fog was observed on only one day, February 23. During the warmer part of the year, the daytime relative humidity averaged much less than a year earlier. A new low record temperature was recorded on February 9 at the Riverside station when the ther- mometer registered 66° below zero. This is the all-time low record for the United States. MISCELLANEOUS Vital Statistics ; There v:ere 8 deaths due to accidents and 2 duo to natural causes, 2 births and 1 marriage. Dr. Ivan T. Budaeff , park physician, has been acting in this capacity since December 1, 1931. Deaths : On December 4, 1932, Mrs. Charles Johnson, an old time resident of the park, died in a Livingston hospital. Mrs. Johnson was the mother of E. T. Scoyen, Superintendent of Glacier National Park. 26 Mrs. Gerald -p. Yetter, wife of Park Ranger Yetter, died a few days later on December 11, in Livingston. Funeral services were held in Livingston, the body being taken later to Cedar Rapids for burial. Andy Wald, a Yellowstone Pioneer resident, who lived in the park some 35 or 40 years, died in- Livingston, Montana, on September 22 at the age of .82. .He was a pioneer also in the making of decorative bottles, filledwith colored sand, which for years were sold as Yellow stone souvenirs. He was known locally as "the sand man". Burial was- in Gardiner on the 23rd. Oh. December 17j J. C. ' (Jake) Schwoob, a pioneer of the State of Wyoming, and one of the- parkas best friends and boosters, passed away in the town of Cody- where he has made his home for many years. Mr. Schwoob was one of- the early boosters for good roads. Mrs. Lawrence Link, who resided in the town of Gardiner for a gooi mahy years, died in Livingston- on- January 5 and was buried the follow-i; ing day in Gardiner. Mrs. Link f s husband freighted in the Yellowstone for many years and was well known among the old timers in the park. H< died several years ago. The entire nation was saddened when on January 5,- 1933, former President Calvin Coolidgc died at his home in Massachusetts* Prcsiden Coolidge was in the Yellowstone for six days in 1927 while serving as the nation's chief executive. Flags, were flown at half mast for a period of thirty days. Dr. William Henry Holmes, a member of the 1871 Hayden Survey part;! died at Royal Oak, Michigan, near Detroit on April 26, 1933, at the age of 86. Dr. Holmes was one of the last survivors of the 1871 survey an was formerly Director of the National Gallery of Art. Mount Holmes in the Gallatin Range was named in his honor. • T. E. (Uncle Billy) Hofer , one of the guides of the park and in- terested in boat operations here, died at Sunlight Beach, Washington, on April 3 j- 1933, after a prolongod illness. Uncle Billy was one of tl guides for the President Roosevelt party in 1903. Gerrit Demmink, Yellowstone ranger in 1925, 1927 and 1928, coiiinit - suicide in San Francisco on April 17, 1935. Mr. Demmink was a promisii-; young lawyer ahd was- employed by one of the loading legal firms in San Francisco. A. W. Miles, an early Montana pioneer and for many years connected with camp operations in Yellowstone Park, passed away at his home in Livingston on May 7. Senator Miles had resided in' the town of Livings; over fifty years. — " 27 Religious Services: The Government Chapel, located at Mammoth •Hot Springs, is in use several times each Sunday during the summer, for services of different religious denominations. The regular schedule included Roman Catholic masses every Sunday morning during July and August at 6:00 a.m. and 8:u0 a.m.; Protestant services at 10:30 a.m. and 8:00 p.m., and Christian Science services at 4:00 iP.m. The Protestant services have been represented by clergy of Montana and Wyoming, including Episcopal, English Lutheran, Congre- gationaVChristian, Methodist and Evangelical. The chapel was also in use about once a month during the winter season for services by the Episcopal and English Lutheran ministers from Livingston, Montana, who come in to hold services for the benefit of our permanent residents. Visitors : After the close of the 1932 season the park was visited in October by Chief Max Big Man, Chief of the Crow Tribe. This was his first visit to the wonderland. October visitors in- cluded Rene Martin and Louis Chevrillon, distinguished French en- gineers from Paris; Vanderbilt Webb and Colonel Arthur Woods, rep- resentatives of the Rockefeller Foundation. In November, Harry J. Liek, Superintendent of Mount McKinley National Park, visited the Yellowstone enroute to a special conference of park superintendents in Washington. In February Dr. A. R. Carter, Chief Surgeon of the Alaska Railway, paid a visit but was able to see only the sections around Gardiner and Mammoth. As soon as the gates were opened for the 1933 season, prominent visitors started coming in, early arrivals including about 35 Rotarians and Rotary Anns from a district convention in Livingston, Miss Josephine Shain, National Director of the Girl Scouts of America, Miss Olga Carl son, member of the National Field Staff of the Girl Scouts; and Clark Gable, motion picture star. A group of world scientists, who attended the International Geological Congress in Chicago, visited the park from August 18 to 21, under the direction of Professor Richard ¥..• Field of Princeton University. The party included scientists from Scotland, France, Belgium, Canada, Spain, Angle-Egyptian Sudan, South Africa, England, Czechoslovakia, Argen- tina, Germany, Italy, China, Japan and various points in the United States. Beginning with the month of June, other prominent persons visited the park, including Arno B. Cammerer, Associate Director of the National Park Service who on August 10 was appointed Director of the new Office of National parks, Buildings and Reservations; a sub- committee of the United States Senate Publrc Lands Committee appointed to investigate the National park Service and the Snake River Land Company, which included U. S. Senators Gerald P. Nye of North Dakota, Peter Norbeck of South Dakota, Henry F. Ashurst of Arizona, Alva B. Adams of Colorado and Robert D. Carey of Wyoming; John C. Pickett, Attorney for the subcommittee; U. S. Senator Homer T. Bone of 28 Washington; Honorable Leslie A. Miller, Governor of Wyoming; ex-Senator John Thomas ; of Idaho; ex-Congressmen Charles B. T'imberlake and William R Eaton of Colorado; John. J. Raskob, capitalist and former' chairman of the Democratic. National Committee; Jack Dempsey, former heavyweight champion boxer of ; the world; Amos Alonzo Stagg, famous Chicago football coach; Nathan v ' R. Margold, Solicitor for the Department of the Interior; W. H. Jackson, member of the 1871 Hayden Survey Party; F. W,» Pratt, Director of the ^Standard Oil Company; W. M. Gurney, British Consul to the United States; Eric H. ' Louew, Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary of the Union of South Africa; Admiral R. H. Leigh,' Commander in Chief of the'U' S. Fleet; Commander W. F. Amsden, U. S. Navy; Brig. General r ^illi^ Sharp McNair, Brig. General Hamilton Smith Hawkins, Colonel George, Langhorne (Retired) , and Colonel A. L. Singleton, all of the U. S. Army. Other prominent visitors included: Laurence Vail Coleman, Director: of the, American Association of Museums; Herbert E. Gregory, of- the. Geological Survey, Honolulu, T. H.; Professor Max Eckert of the Geo- graphical Society of Berlin; Dr. A. W.„ Grabau of the Geological Sur- vey of China; John G. Lonsdale,'. President of the Mercantile Trust Company', St. Louis; George Keim, retired banker and secretary Republican National Committee; James E. She! ton, Vice-President of the Security First National Bank, Los Angeles'; Dr. Harold C. Bryant, Assistant Director of the National park Servi.co; H. A. Tolson, Attorney for the National Park Service; J.., A. Elliott,' District Engineer for the Bureau of Public Roads; James A. Ramsey, Special Agent. in Charge for the Division of Investigation of the Interior Department; Struthers Burt, author and Saturday Evening Post writer; Stewart Edward White, author and writer"; Walter Gilkys on, author, writer, and lawyer; Colonel A. A. Anderson, artist, author and first supervisor of the Yellowstone National Forest; Anne Cameron, Saturday Evening. Post writer; L. C. Speers, Washington correspondent for the Ne?/ York Times; .Mrs. Shermerhor: Pike, editor and publisher of "Talk of the Town"; T. M. Mctzger, Associated Press representative, Helena, Montana; Max Hill, City Editor of the Denver Post; Hans Ullendorff , New York representative for several German newspapers; Frank Baldwin, editor of the Waco, Texas," News- Tribune; B. C. Thrailkill, editor of the St. Joseph, Missouri, Gazette; Paul G. Friggins, director of the ! Tri-Statc News Bureau, Belle Fourche, South Dakota; F. W. Robinson, Vice-President of the Union Pacific System E. E. Nelson, Passenger Traffic Manager of the 'Northern Pacific; M.M. Goodsill, General Passenger Agent, Northern Pacific; C. J. Collins, Assistant Passenger Traffic Manager, Union Pacific System; H. B. North- cutt, Advertising Manager., Union Pacific System; Paul H. Davis, Presi- dent of the Chicago Live Stock Exchange; Moll ie G. Lamb, Union Pacific lecturer; Alexander Baillis, President, Rainier National Park Company; William B. Greeley, conservationist and Camp Fire Club member; Dr. . John C. Phillips, conservationist and noted writer on wild life; Charles S. Judd, territorial forester, Hawaii; Nelson C. Brown, investi- gator, for Director Fechner of Emergency Conservation Work; John D. Wright, c'haiiman, State Association of County Planni,ng Commissioners, Santa' Barbara, California; Harlean James, executive secretary, American Civil Association; Jacques Weber, Vice-President, Bloomsburg Silk Mills; 29 F. J. Frankenhoff , Police Judge, St. Joseph, Missouri; Harry P. Stan- ford, Montana State Fish and Game Commissioner; Charles B. Marrs, Mon- tana State Game Warden; Reverend James J. Davies, radio lecturer and writer, Sioux City, Iowa; Ernest V. Shayler, Bishop of Episcopal Church, Ctaaha, Nebraska; Paul Shirley, noted violinist and radio broadcaster; William V. Hodges, prominent in Colorado politics; Harold P. Fabian, attorney for Snake River Land Company; Godfrey D. Yaeger, Indianapolis attorney and member National Parks Association; D. H. Cook, son of C. W. Cook of the 1869 Cook-Folsom party, and many other leading busi- ness, professional and scientific men and women. Ten representatives of the Fox Film Corporation, under Matt I. Cullinan, Business Managor, were in the park late in August filming shots for Will Rogers latest picture. About the same time representatives of the Consolidated Film Industries, Inc., Hollywood, were in the park taking colored mo- tion pictures of park features. ^ '>,',;,;.> u ¥ O^j^^cA JL U^l tl/e<tuv~ YVUasUUU^ PJ&UBA*i'^'j> <*> Qq aAJx^ Prepared at the Western Museum Laboratories of the Rational Par\ Service with assistance provided by the Wor\ Projects Administration — Official Project JS(o. 65-2-08-16, Rational Youth Administration and Civilian Conservation Corps.